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delovanje vetra (eolski procesi)/ Aeolian processes

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slovenščina Delovanje vetra (Eolski procesi) se nanaša na aktivnost vetra pri preučevanju geologije in vremena ter zlasti na sposobnost vetra, da preoblikuje površino Zemlje (ali drugih planetov). Vetrovi lahko erodirajo, prenašajo in odlagajo materiale in so učinkoviti dejavniki v regijah z redko vegetacijo, pomanjkanjem vlage v tleh in veliko zalogo nekonsolidiranih usedlin. Čeprav je voda veliko močnejša erozijska sila kot veter, so eolski procesi pomembni v sušnih okoljih, kot so puščave.
Izraz izhaja iz imena grškega boga Eola, varuha vetrov.
Veter erodira zemeljsko površino z deflacijo (odstranjevanje ohlapnih, drobnozrnatih delcev z turbulentnim delovanjem vetra) in z abrazijo (obraba površin z brušenjem in peskanjem z delci, ki jih prenaša veter).

Območja, ki doživljajo intenzivno in trajno erozijo, se imenujejo deflacijska cona. Večina območij eolske deflacije je sestavljena iz puščavskega pločnika, ploščaste površine kamnin, ki ostane, potem ko veter in voda odstranita drobne delce. Skoraj polovica puščavskih površin na Zemlji je kamnita deflacijska cona. Skalni plašč v puščavskih tlakih ščiti osnovni material pred deflacijo.

Temni, sijoči madež, imenovan puščavski lak ali skalni lak, se pogosto nahaja na površinah nekaterih puščavskih kamnin, ki so bile na površini izpostavljene dlje časa. Mangan, železovi oksidi, hidroksidi in minerali gline tvorijo večino lakov in zagotavljajo sijaj.

Deflacijski bazeni, imenovani blowouts, so vdolbine, ki nastanejo z odstranjevanjem delcev z vetrom. Izbruhi so običajno majhni, vendar so lahko v premeru do nekaj kilometrov.

Zrna, ki jih poganja veter, bruhajo oblike tal. V delih Antarktike so snežinke, ki jih je pihal veter, ki so tehnično sedimenti, povzročile tudi odrgnino izpostavljenih kamnin. Mletje z delci, ki jih veter prenaša, ustvarja utore ali majhne vdolbine. Ventifakti so kamnine, ki so bile razrezane in včasih polirane z abrazivnim delovanjem vetra.

Izklesane oblike, imenovane yardangs, so visoke do deset metrov in dolge kilometre in so oblike, ki so jih poenostavili puščavski vetrovi. Slavna Velika sfinga v Gizi v Egiptu je lahko spremenjen yardang.

Viri:
Allaby, Michael (2013). "eolski procesi (eolski procesi)". Slovar geologije in znanosti o Zemlji. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Informacijske table Geopark Rab

slovensko Aeolian processes pertain to wind activity in the study of geology and weather and specifically to the wind's ability to shape the surface of the Earth (or other planets). Winds may erode, transport, and deposit materials and are effective agents in regions with sparse vegetation, a lack of soil moisture and a large supply of unconsolidated sediments. Although water is a much more powerful eroding force than wind, aeolian processes are important in arid environments such as deserts.
The term is derived from the name of the Greek god Aeolus, the keeper of the winds.
Wind erodes the Earth's surface by deflation (the removal of loose, fine-grained particles by the turbulent action of the wind) and by abrasion (the wearing down of surfaces by the grinding action and sandblasting by windborne particles).

Regions which experience intense and sustained erosion are called deflation zones. Most aeolian deflation zones are composed of desert pavement, a sheet-like surface of rock fragments that remains after wind and water have removed the fine particles. Almost half of Earth's desert surfaces are stony deflation zones. The rock mantle in desert pavements protects the underlying material from deflation.

A dark, shiny stain, called desert varnish or rock varnish, is often found on the surfaces of some desert rocks that have been exposed at the surface for a long period of time. Manganese, iron oxides, hydroxides, and clay minerals form most varnishes and provide the shine.

Deflation basins, called blowouts, are hollows formed by the removal of particles by wind. Blowouts are generally small, but may be up to several kilometers in diameter.

Wind-driven grains abrade landforms. In parts of Antarctica wind-blown snowflakes that are technically sediments have also caused abrasion of exposed rocks. Grinding by particles carried in the wind creates grooves or small depressions. Ventifacts are rocks which have been cut, and sometimes polished, by the abrasive action of wind.

Sculpted landforms, called yardangs, are up to tens of meters high and kilometers long and are forms that have been streamlined by desert winds. The famous Great Sphinx of Giza in Egypt may be a modified yardang.

Reference:
Allaby, Michael (2013). "aeolian processes (eolian processes)". A dictionary of geology and earth sciences. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Geopark Rab guide tables

 

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