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Rašica (The birthplace of Primož Trubar)

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Rašica is a settlement in the municipality of Velika Lašče in Dolenjska (Lower Carniola) region in Slovenia.The village is best known as the birthplace of Primož Trubar, the father of the Slovenian literary language. The Trubar monument and the memorial Trubar homestead (Temkov mlin) stand in the settlement.

Primož Trubar was a Protestant priest and writer, born on June 8, 1508, and died on June 28, 1586 in Derendingen (now part of Tübingen in Germany).

Trubar was a central figure of the Reformation in Carniola (nowadays Slovenia), and he is best known as the author of the first printed books in the Slovenian language, the Catechism and the Alphabet (1550). Of all the Protestant book production in Slovenian, he wrote half and edited two thirds of the works. The Protestant literary tradition overshadowed the Catholic one so strongly that it had to lean on Protestant works even after Catholicism prevailed over Protestantism with the Counter-Reformation. That is why Trubar is considered the founder of the Slovenian literary language, a central character of Slovenian cultural history and, in various ways, even a major historical figure.

Trubar mostly worked in Ljubljana, where he became a preacher around 1535 and a cathedral canon in 1542. He was the founder and superintendent (1561-1565) of the Protestant church in Carniola. In 1564, he published 'Cerkovno ordningo', a church order. Because he thus encroached on the authority of the provincial prince, he was finally expelled from Carniola in 1565 - he visited it only once more. After that, he lived and served in Germany in Württemberg until his death.

Primož Trubar was most likely born in June in 1508 or 1509 in Rašica near Velike Lašče in Vojvodina Kranjska (historical part of nowadays Slovenia), or in the immediate vicinity of the village under Kukmako hill. The place and date of birth cannot be determined with certainty because baptism registers were not known at that time; but they also used the old calendar count. Historians have researched the data with the help of other documents. He was not born on the site of the mill, where today there is a memorial museum, but in the former 'Šklopov mlin' (mill), which stood at least 400 m away, more along the same stream. His father's name was Malnar (miller), and Truber, or originally Trobar, was his mother's name. Primož took this surname in 1526 at the latest. From 1528 onwards, he consistently signed his letters Truber and not Trubar.

In 1520, the Count of Turjak probably allowed him to go to school to become a priest, so the talented young man left his birthplace for good at the age of twelve. He studied for one year in Rijeka (nowadays Croatia), then two years in Salzburg (nowadays Austria), where he received a basic education in grammar, dialectics, rhetoric and German. From there he went to Trieste (nowadays Italy) under the tutelage of the Roman Catholic bishop Pietro Bonomo, where he came into contact with humanist writers, especially Erazem Roterdamski.

When he was nineteen years old, the bishop of Trieste, Pietro Bonomo, assigned him the parish of Loka pri Zidanem mostu. In the autumn of 1527, Bonomo sent the young Trumpeter to study in Vienna. Because of the army of the Ottoman Empire, which was approaching Vienna, life in the city was threatened and made difficult. That is why he returned to the bishop in Trieste in the autumn of 1529. There he celebrated mass and preached in the minority church. In 1530, the bishop ordained him a priest and appointed him vicar in the parish of St. Martin in Laško. He performed the spiritual service there according to the Catholic rite, but his early sermons already resembled the sermons of Erazem roterdamski. He renovated churches and parsonages in Celje, Laško and elsewhere.

He returned to Ljubljana in 1536 and became the diocesan vicar. He preached in the city in Slovenian and German languages. In his sermons, he used the biblical interpretation of the Swiss reformers and Zwinglians Henrich Bullinger and Konrad Pelikan and became familiar with the works of Martin Luther. In 1540, the provincial governor Nikola Juršič was fired because of his views. Trubar almost ended up in prison, but his associates warned him in time. Due to persecution, he once again took refuge in Trieste with Bonomo. There he delved into the theological writings of the Swiss reformer Calvin. Bonomo soon convinced Kacijanar, the Bishop of Ljubljana, to appoint Trubar as a canon. He thus entered a new job in 1542, again in Ljubljana.

Under the new bishop Urban Textor, who was a fervent Catholic, he got the job of vicar in Šentjernej na Dolenjskem. There, he was supposed to manage the economy of the parish. Bishop Textor, however, decided to deal with the Protestants, who had them arrested and brought before the court. Primož Trubar was again informed in time and was able to hide to safety. After a few months of hiding, the Ljubljana ecclesiastical court excommunicated him, confiscated his house in Ljubljana (now Levstikov trg), the Šentjernej parish and the Celje beneficiate, and the secular provincial court sentenced him to prison. In 1548, he had to flee to Germany, and with his escape he also became a provincial renegade.

In the same year, he went to Nüremberg. The leading theologian and town preacher, Veit Dietrich, became his mentor, and under his guidance, Trubar quickly integrated into the Lutheran community in the town. In mid-May 1548, he got the job of pastor in Rothenburg. There he also started a family with Barbara Sitar, with whom he had four children. Shortly after 1550, Trubar received a parish in Kempten, where he worked between 1553 and 1561. He served in Bad Urach before leaving for Ljubljana and returned to Bad Urach after a two-month stay in Ljubljana (1561). He founded a printing house in the city to print books in Glagolitic and Cyrillic. After being exiled from Ljubljana due to the Church Ordninga, he stayed for a while as a superintendent in the city of Lauffen and later settled in Derendingen, where he lived and served until his death. He was buried in the church of St. Gala.

In 1548, Trubar began to devise and implement ideas for familiarizing Slovenes with religious content with the help of the press. This enabled the development of Slovenian literature. He converted to the Augsburg religion and became a true Protestant. He began to realize the idea of winning over Slovenians to the new version of religion with the Slovenian printed word. He started with the first book Catechism (lat. Catechismus), which is based on the works of Veit Dietrich, Martin Luther, Matija Vlačić Ilirik and Johann Brenz.

In the same year, he prepared a short Abecednik (full title Abecednik and small catechism in the Slovenian language, German: Abecedarium und der klein Catechismus in der Windischen Sprach), as he was aware that he must first teach people the basics of reading or at least basic prayers and Christian truths. When deciding on a language that was already dialectally and socially stratified, his knowledge of the language in various Slovenian lands came in handy, and he took as a basis the area of Central Slovenia, where Gorenje and Dolenje were mixed. Trubar had both booklets printed by the printer Peter Frentz in Schwäbisch Hall. In the Catechism, he signed himself as Philopatridus Illiyricus ("Illyrian patriot"), and in both works he gave the printer the fictitious name Jernej Škrjanec from Sedmograški. Because of the provisions of the interim, the printer could otherwise lose the right to practice the craft. The catechism contains some explanatory chapters on Protestant doctrines, six songs, two prayers and a sermon on faith. With this booklet, Primož Trubar wanted to teach his compatriots about the Protestant faith and at the same time serve Protestant worship in Slovenia. The catechism was intended for direct use primarily by educated people. The alphabet, which contains eight pages, was written by Trubar with the intention that his compatriots would learn to read from it (»Ane bukvice, iz tih se ti mladi inu preprosti Slovenci mogo lahko v kratkim času brati navučiti.«) and that those who who cannot yet read, taught the basics of the Christian faith. So it was work for the less educated and illiterate. With these works, Trubar became the pioneer of Slovenian literature.

Shortly after the publication of the first book, Trubar was given a parish in Kempten on the Tyrolean border. The relationship with Peter Pavlo Vergeri, the former bishop of Koper, who was then an advisor to Duke Kristof of Württemberg, came in very handy. With Vergeri's help, in 1555 he published a new, less original Catechism and a new Alphabet, this time in Latin, as well as The Gospel of St. Matthew and a translation of Vergeri's Italian work One prayer of those Christians (refugees). In 1557, Trubar published the thousand-page book Ta pervi deil Tiga noviga testamenta, which contains translations of the Gospels and the acts of the apostles and is equipped with a long preface about the teachings of Luther's faith, a calendar ('Ta slovenski koledar', which was the first in Slovenia) and a Postil , that is, the interpretation of the Sunday and holiday gospels.

Despite the problems with Peter Vergeri, Trubar, under the protection of Baron Ivan Ungnad, the former head of Styria, who was then staying in Bad Urach near Tübingen, obtained approval from Duke Kristof to publish the book Ta secondi deil Tiga noiva testamenta and in 1560 he published Paul's letter to the Romans. The provincial estates invited him to accept the post of superintendent (Protestant dean) in Ljubljana. During this time he had a lot of work, he was given a parish in Urach and took over the leadership of the Bible institute. He independently published the book of St. Paul ta two listi h tim Corintarje inu ta h tim Galatarje, and he also wrote a German devotional for the verb catechism and published in German the Register, a report on his previous works, in order to refute the accusations that he was a Zwinglian. This report is the first bibliographic work on Slovenians.

In June 1561, Trubar went to Ljubljana, where he was received magnificently. In his role as superintendent of the Slovenian Protestant Church, he tackled the main issues. He organized the Slovenian Protestant Church and achieved that preachers were placed in important places in Slovenia. Unfortunately, he soon got into a dispute with Matija Klombner, the estate scribe, who maintained contacts with Ungnad's institute in Urach, where they translated the Bible into the Croatian language. The dispute broke out over the quality of the Croatian translation of the Bible, as Trubar claimed that the translation contained many errors.

After a two-month stay in Ljubljana, Trubar returned to Bad Urach, where he continued to work tirelessly. Among other things, he wrote several dedications to various Glagolitic and Cyrillic books (The First Part of the New Testament 1562 and Articles 1562). The following year, in June 1562, he returned to Ljubljana as superintendent. He was very busy, but he continued to write German dedications for Croatian books that were published in Ungnad's institute. He compiled and published (in 1564) the Church Order, i.e. the Church Order for the Slovenian Church. With this order, he interfered with the rights of the provincial prince, who had the book confiscated and Trubar expelled. The text is considered the first legal text in our language.

After returning to Germany, Trubar stayed for a few months in Lauffen on the Neckar, then settled permanently in Derendingen, where he was pastor until his death. Here, in 1566, he published 'Ta celi psalter Davidov', a new Abecedarij and the German-Slovenian 'Ta celi katehismus'... In 1567, he returned to Slovenia for a short time in order to find out more about a German theologian from the Ottoman prisoners in Ljubljana and Ribnica the Koran.

After seven years, i.e. in 1574, he published the third edition of the songbook entitled 'a celi katehismus … inu pejsni'. Three years later, he finished his life's work with the translation of the New Testament in the second half; and five years later he reissued the revised This Whole New Testament in its entirety. His last work is the translation of Luther's House Fasting, which was published by his younger son Felician only nine years after his death. The trumpeter died at the age of 78 in Derendingen, where he is also buried.

Boris Golec: Kdo in od kod je bil pravzaprav Primož Trubar? V: Vera in hotenja. Ur. Sašo Jerše, Ljubljana, Slovenska matica, 2009,
Boris Golec, Primož Trubar. Prispevki k življenjepisu. Elektronska izdaja. ZRC SAZU, 2013,
Jože Javoršek, Primož Trubar, Partizanska knjiga, Ljubljana,1986, 2. dopolnjena izdaja ob štiristoletnici Trubarjeve smrti,
Kozma Ahačič: Nova odkritja o slovenski protestantiki. Slavistična revija 61/4, 2013, str. 543-555.,
Mihael Glavan, Trubarjev album : romanje s Trubarjem, Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga, 2008.


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