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Novo mesto

Virtualna ekskurzija :: Virtual excursionvirtual excursion (2022)

2008

Burger.si je Mojaslovenija.si

Novo mesto is the economic and cultural center of Dolenjska region. It is situated at the crossroads of (once) important trade routes in the hilly landscape above the meander of the Krka River. This area was inhabited some 1000 years before our counting. Archaeological sites have shown that this area was permanently inhabited from the end of the Bronze Age until the decline of the Roman Empire. Most of the archeological finds are stored in the Dolenjska Museum. The city was founded on April 7, 1365 by the Habsburg duke Rudolf IV. The original name of the town was Rudolfswert. Later, at the end of the 18th century, the name Novo mesto began to be used. In 1746 a grammar school and in 1749 a district office were established in Novo mesto. This is also the date when Novo mesto is considered the administrative center of Dolenjska. The primary school was founded in 1788, and in 1816 the girls' school. In 1850 the town received a court and a gendarmerie. The first Narodni dom in Slovenia was built in Novo mesto in 1875. The railway connection with the world was established in 1894. In 1958, the Ljubljana-Zagreb highway was upgraded, which enabled faster industrial development. Today, Novo mesto is one of the largest industrial and economic centers in Slovenia.

Place description similar to:

Novo mesto is the largest settlement in the Dolenjska region. It is located in the middle of a hilly landscape in the river bend of the river Krka at an altitude of 202 m. The town perimeter consists of Gorjanci in the southeast, Ljuben in the southwest (546 m above sea level), Kočevski Rog in the west, and the wine-growing Trška gora (428 m above sea level) in the north.

The old town stands on a rocky hill by the meander of the river Krka. It is surrounded by a slow gray-green Krka in three consecutive river bends. Among them are three piers. The town stands on the most pronounced middle pier, and the other two are overgrown with forest: in the west Portoval, in the east Ragov log, which is partially converted into a park and since 1955 connected to the left bank of the Krka by a wooden footbridge - Ragovski most.

The peninsula with the town center rises the highest with Kapiteljski hrib (202 m above sea level), which descends steeply to the southwest towards the Krka. This is where the famous Breg was created, which gives the city a unique landmark. The most beautiful view opens from the east and the west and has therefore often been depicted by painters, especially Jakac and Lamut. The rocky steep bank of the Krka passes from Brega to the west into the alluvial river terrace Loko. Now there are sports fields here. The level of the Krka is below Novo mesto at the upper dam next to the former mill at an altitude of 162 m above sea level.

From the old core, the city is fanning along the incoming roads. In the northwest towards the village Prečna is the oldest part of the town, traffic-transport and industrial Bršljin with Cegelnica, Muhaber and Mala and Velika Bučna vas along the road to Mirna peč. North of the old town is the Marof hill and the suburb of Mestna njiva, followed by the industrial complexes of Ločna and Mačkovec in the northeast in the direction of Otočec or Trška gora, on the right bank of the Krka are the hamlets of Ragovo, Graben and Krka. On the eastern edge of Novo mesto is Velika Cikava and the independent village Mala Cikava with the economic zone Cikava and the nearby Mali Slatnik and Smolenja vas, in the southeast Žabja vas, Gotna vas and Jedinščica pod Poganški vrh, in the south the urban areas Kandija, Grm Šmihel with Regrča vas below Železni hrib and the independent village of Škrjanče, and to the west are the settlements of Drska, Irča vas and Brod in the direction of Straža on the right and Groblje on the left bank of the Krka, as well as the village of Srebrniče with a new Novo mesto cemetery.

Heavy water in Kandija flows into the Krka River from the right and Bršljinski potok from the left in the first bend of the river, and Slatenski potok flows from the right on the eastern edge, flowing between Mahov and Veliki hrib through Veliki and Mali Slatnik Grabnu. There are several karst springs right next to its riverbed; among them is a very strong spring on the right bank of the Candian Bridge.

Weather observations date back to the 1880s. Due to the intertwining influences of the Pannonian and mountain climates, average monthly temperatures and precipitation fluctuate greatly. The average annual temperature is 9.6 ° C, January - 1.9 ° C and July + 19.5 ° C. The annual rainfall averages 1260 mm. It is dominated by northwest, east and southwest winds, which often have the character of a fan in winter. It is windiest from February to April.

The city is a trade, administrative, health, educational, traffic (railway hub, on the northern outskirts of the city approaches the A2 Karavanke - Ljubljana - Zagreb highway with two exits to Novo mesto) and cultural center, and modern urban flows also covered the wider countryside. has lost its agricultural role. The automotive industry (Revoz - former IMV, Adria Mobil, TPV-Tovarna posebnih vozila), pharmaceutical and cosmetics (Krka), textile (Labod, formerly also Novoteks), wood (Novoles), footwear and electrical engineering industries and insulation materials industry.

Novo mesto is the economic and cultural center of Dolenjska. It lies at the crossroads of (once) important trade routes in the hilly landscape above the meander of the Krka River. This area was inhabited some 1000 years before our counting. Archaeological sites have shown that this area was permanently inhabited from the end of the Bronze Age until the decline of the Roman Empire. Most of the archeological finds are stored in the Dolenjska Museum. The city was founded on April 7, 1365 by the Habsburg duke Rudolf IV. The original name of the town was Rudolfswert. Later, at the end of the 18th century, the name Novo mesto began to be used. In 1746 a grammar school and in 1749 a district office were established in Novo mesto. This is also the date when Novo mesto is considered the administrative center of Dolenjska. The primary school was founded in 1788, and in 1816 the girls' school. In 1850 the town received a court and a gendarmerie. The first Narodni dom in Slovenia was built in Novo mesto in 1875. The railway connection with the world was established in 1894. In 1958, the Ljubljana-Zagreb highway was upgraded, which enabled faster industrial development. Today, Novo mesto is one of the largest industrial and economic centers in Slovenia.

Place description similar to:

Novo mesto is the largest settlement in the Dolenjska region. It is located in the middle of a hilly landscape in the river bend of the river Krka at an altitude of 202 m. The town perimeter consists of Gorjanci in the southeast, Ljuben in the southwest (546 m above sea level), Kočevski Rog in the west, and the wine-growing Trška gora (428 m above sea level) in the north.

The old town stands on a rocky hill by the meander of the river Krka. It is surrounded by a slow gray-green Krka in three consecutive river bends. Among them are three piers. The town stands on the most pronounced middle pier, and the other two are overgrown with forest: in the west Portoval, in the east Ragov log, which is partially converted into a park and since 1955 connected to the left bank of the Krka by a wooden footbridge - Ragovski most.

The peninsula with the town center rises the highest with Kapiteljski hrib (202 m above sea level), which descends steeply to the southwest towards the Krka. This is where the famous Breg was created, which gives the city a unique landmark. The most beautiful view opens from the east and the west and has therefore often been depicted by painters, especially Jakac and Lamut. The rocky steep bank of the Krka passes from Brega to the west into the alluvial river terrace Loko. Now there are sports fields here. The level of the Krka is below Novo mesto at the upper dam next to the former mill at an altitude of 162 m above sea level.

From the old core, the city is fanning along the incoming roads. In the northwest towards the village Prečna is the oldest part of the town, traffic-transport and industrial Bršljin with Cegelnica, Muhaber and Mala and Velika Bučna vas along the road to Mirna peč. North of the old town is the Marof hill and the suburb of Mestna njiva, followed by the industrial complexes of Ločna and Mačkovec in the northeast in the direction of Otočec or Trška gora, on the right bank of the Krka are the hamlets of Ragovo, Graben and Krka. On the eastern edge of Novo mesto is Velika Cikava and the independent village Mala Cikava with the economic zone Cikava and the nearby Mali Slatnik and Smolenja vas, in the southeast Žabja vas, Gotna vas and Jedinščica pod Poganški vrh, in the south the urban areas Kandija, Grm Šmihel with Regrča vas below Železni hrib and the independent village of Škrjanče, and to the west are the settlements of Drska, Irča vas and Brod in the direction of Straža on the right and Groblje on the left bank of the Krka, as well as the village of Srebrniče with a new Novo mesto cemetery.

Heavy water in Kandija flows into the Krka River from the right and Bršljinski potok from the left in the first bend of the river, and Slatenski potok flows from the right on the eastern edge, flowing between Mahov and Veliki hrib through Veliki and Mali Slatnik Grabnu. There are several karst springs right next to its riverbed; among them is a very strong spring on the right bank of the Candian Bridge.

Weather observations date back to the 1880s. Due to the intertwining influences of the Pannonian and mountain climates, average monthly temperatures and precipitation fluctuate greatly. The average annual temperature is 9.6 ° C, January - 1.9 ° C and July + 19.5 ° C. The annual rainfall averages 1260 mm. It is dominated by northwest, east and southwest winds, which often have the character of a fan in winter. It is windiest from February to April.

The city is a trade, administrative, health, educational, traffic (railway hub, on the northern outskirts of the city approaches the A2 Karavanke - Ljubljana - Zagreb highway with two exits to Novo mesto) and cultural center, and modern urban flows also covered the wider countryside. has lost its agricultural role. The automotive industry (Revoz - former IMV, Adria Mobil, TPV-Tovarna posebnih vozila), pharmaceutical and cosmetics (Krka), textile (Labod, formerly also Novoteks), wood (Novoles), footwear and electrical engineering industries and insulation materials industry.

One of the largest Slovenian construction companies, Pionir Novo mesto, went bankrupt in 1996, and now includes CGP, a company for construction, engineering, production and maintenance of roads and GPI.

Novo mesto has 5 primary schools (Grm Primary School, Bršljin Primary School, Drska Primary School, Center Primary School, Šmihel Primary School), music school, famous grammar school, which is the second oldest school with a grammar school program in today's Slovenia, several secondary schools united in the School Center Novo mesto with a higher vocational school and the Leon Štukelj Sports Hall built in 1999, which meets European standards for playing basketball, volleyball and handball, the University and Research Center or. private University of Novo mesto with several faculties and the College of Rural Management Grm. Here are the headquarters of institutions of regional importance in the field of health (Novo mesto General Hospital, emergency center and health center), banking, telecommunications and electronic media (Radio Krka, Radio Center, Radio Sraka, TV Vaš kanal Novo mesto), justice, insurance, employment . In addition to the Leon Štukelj Sports Hall, there are several sports facilities in the city: Novo mesto Stadium, Portoval Stadium, Marof Sports Hall, and west of the town near Češča vas since 2019 the Novo Mesto Olympic Center, which hosts athletic competitions and is one of two Slovenian velodromes (built in 1996), and the Novo mesto indoor swimming pool in Češča vas is also under construction. Even further west is the Novo mesto-Prečna Sports Airport, which is partly located in the Municipality of Straža.

Historical outline

In the sixth century AD, smaller groups of Slavs came to today's Slovenian territory, uniting with the original inhabitants. The people soon settled in the strategically suitable valley of the river Krka and created a permanent settlement here. However, they were able to start farming well only in the 12th century, when the incursions to the west through the Dolenjska area stopped and farmers could wish for what they sowed. during this period the number of settlements also increased and reached almost today's number.

In the 13th century, there was already a strong need for the right place in Dolenjska. Kostanjevica, which was the first of the Dolenjska settlements to be granted city rights, was a city more on paper than in reality, and there was not much to expect from the island city. There were some promising squares in the vicinity (Mokronog, Črnomelj, Metlika), but the strategically idyllic settlement in the bend of the Krka River called for the establishment of the town.

For about three hundred years - 1200 to 1500 - individual noble families changed in the race for possession of our land, but this race was decided as early as 1335 in favor of the Habsburgs. The most prominent and successful representative of Habsburg politics was Duke Rudolf IV. Habsburg. The 20-year-old succeeded his father Albrecht, called the "Blue", in 1358. He died seven years later in Milan. He was the son-in-law of the Czech king and German emperor Charles IV. In the same year, as he signed the charter of privilege to Novo mesto, he also founded the University of Vienna, which earned him the nickname "Founder".

Unlike all older Dolenjska and Krajina, as well as Slovene cities, to which their city rights were granted orally, so that it is not possible to determine the exact year of their founding, Novo mesto was given on 7 April 1365 in writing with a special document, which was once called the Constitutional Letter, but today is more properly a charter of privilege. When the city was founded, the duke also concluded an agreement with the Stična abbot Peter, with whom he was otherwise close. The abbot and the duke exchanged some estates near the nascent city and elsewhere. Rudolf gave the emerging town in the bend of the Krka a name after his own name Rudolfswerth (Rudolf's port).

The people called the emerging settlement Novo mesto, and in a simultaneous document dated 29 September 1365, kept in the archives of the German Knights in Vienna, this new settlement is called Newestat (Novo mesto). Novo mesto was built at the will and order of Duke Rudolf to establish a new economic and administrative center in the commercially important Krka Valley and in the center of Dolenjska, and a base for the increasingly Adriatic-oriented Habsburg possessions. With the founding of Novo mesto, citizens were guaranteed personal freedom, city self-government, their own and elected judges, the right to trade and fairs. For a century and a half, the city flourished and became the most important place in Carniola.

In the 16th century, peasant uprisings, various diseases and the rapid development of Karlovac significantly influenced the decline of the city. The collapse of trade and crafts was so violent that people began to emigrate from the city and began to engage in agriculture. The new trade routes of Karlovac with Rijeka and Trieste significantly bypassed Novo mesto and thus further contributed to the impoverishment of the city. This situation prevailed until the beginning of the 18th century.

In 1738, a regular postal service between Ljubljana and Karlovac began to operate through Novo mesto. The connection intensified the events in Novo mesto, so that in 1746 a grammar school was established. In 1748, the town also received a district office (kresijo) and became an important administrative and cultural center of the Dolenjska region. The town acquired a boys 'school in 1778, and a girls' school in 1816.

In 1850, Novo mesto received a gendarmerie and a court. Novo mesto experienced a national awakening on the 500th anniversary of its founding. The National Party was strengthened and in 1875 the Narodni dom was built, the first on Slovenian soil.

The municipality of Novo mesto came under the rule of the Slovenes in 1871, and finally in 1882. The Slovene national societies developed very quickly. In 1894 Novo mesto got a railway, in 1905 the town hall - Rotovž on Glavni trg, and in 1908 all German inscriptions were removed from the facades. After the Second World War, Novo mesto began to change rapidly. The consequences of the German bombing in September and October 1943 had to be eliminated.

Austrian efforts to modernize the empire benefited Novo mesto greatly, as it became one of the most important Carniolan towns. The construction of the road between Ljubljana and Karlovac (postal union), built by Emperor Charles VI, contributed to this, and even more important for the city of reform were his daughter, Maria Theresa. In 1748, it named Novo mesto the seat of one of the three Carniolan districts (kresij), thus increasing the number of officials in Novo mesto. This also brought greater use of the German language, but did not displace Slovene.

With the development of the city, the need arose to establish a gymnasium that would enable the continuation of schooling after primary school. the reasons for the establishment of the Novo mesto grammar school in 1746 were both material (for the solution of Novo mesto from material ruin) and the efforts of the Franciscans to start higher education in Dolenjska. Thus, on November 3, 1746, classes were held for the first time with 66 students in the premises of the Novo mesto grammar school (now the Marjan Kozina Music School). Ever since its establishment, the management of the gymnasium (which passed from the hands of the Franciscans to the hands of the state) has had problems with space. These were finally solved in 1912, when a new building was built, in which the gymnasium still teaches today.

The city retained its walls until the middle of the 18th century, due to the danger of Turkish invasions. Remains still testify to the former defense of the city and where it took place. This was followed by a series of interventions brought about by the reforms of Maria Theresa and her son, Joseph II, which abolished the medieval image of the city. In 1779, the 'hospital' church was demolished and the 'hospital' was sold, and the office (now the Miran Jarc Library) moved into the renovated building. A barracks was built along the Krka River, and in 1785 burial around the capital church was banned (the cemetery later changed its location several more times). In 1786, the city walls were demolished and sold, along with some of the towers that are now built into the buildings; these stand at the former entrances to the city (e.g .: “At the door” next to the study library).

The measures that followed severely weakened the cultural significance of Dolenjska and Novo mesto in the Slovenian environment; the Stična and Kostanjevica monasteries were abolished, leaving centuries of knowledge lost, and the economic, residential buildings and churches were left to fend for themselves. Only the grammar school remained culturally active.

At the end of the 18th century, the entire Slovenian territory fell into the hands of the French Empire. due to the anti-Austrian attitude, the people of Dolenjska, like all Slovenes, saw the French as saviors. Dolenjska thus fell under the control of Napoleon's generals, who imposed high war taxes on the occupied places; these poor places of Dolenjska were unable to pay, and even before Napoleon's army could intervene, riots had already begun in Kočevje, which spread all the way to Novo mesto. Here the French soldiers came out fierce and killed many peasant rebels, threw them into the river Krka and burned the capital port on Marof, Bršljin and Prečno.

The new French government made many promises to improve lives, but only a few came true. the program of the Novo mesto grammar school was reduced to three years, but it enabled the use of the Slovene language. Life in the Illyrian provinces has also become safer and transport links have improved.

In the first half of the 19th century, Novo mesto failed to make radical changes that would enrich both the city and its surroundings. Of the other towns in Dolenjska, it remained more important mainly due to the district court and grammar school, which gave Novo mesto the status of the cultural and official center of Dolenjska. In 1873, the construction of the first national home in Slovenia began in the new town, which still stands today (Sokolski dom); it planned premises for the Slovene National Library, a savings bank, a national theater, a museum and a school for the national language, literature and history.

In 1894, the city finally got a railway connection with Ljubljana, which slightly improved its economic situation; this would have flourished even more if the city had not had to wait another twenty years for a connection with Bela krajina. In the same year, the merciful brothers also opened their hospital in Kandija, which made the new town the health center of Dolenjska, and also markedly improved the health of the population. In 1908, Drago Andrijanič also moved to Novo mesto, and today he is mentioned as the pioneer of the successful Novo mesto pharmaceutical industry (Krka).

Sources:
Krusic, Marjan (2009). Slovenia: tourist guide. Mladinska knjiga Publishing House. COBISS 244517632. ISBN 978-961-01-0690-6.
Granda, Stane Novo mesto, Novo mesto, 2007,
Website of the Municipality of Novo mesto, URLhttps: //www.novomesto.si, summarized on 16 June 2022.

 


 

Burger Landmarks / MojaSlovenija.si

Digitalizacija dediščine: (c) Boštjan Burger, (1993) 1996-2022